Oracle Solaris Operating System Interview Questions
Oracle Solaris is a proprietary Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems earlier SunOS in 1993. In 2010, after the Sun acquisition by Oracle, it was renamed Oracle Solaris. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC and x86-64 workstations and servers from Oracle and other vendors.
Some of the few Oracle Solaris Operating System Interview Questions are below
What Is An Alternative To The “top” Command On Solaris in interview questions?
# prstat –a
Is It Possible To Create Swap In New Hard Disk Without Format?
“ No “ without label the drive, you can’t do anything
Is It Possible To Edit The Crontab Using Vi, It Is Not Recommended But It Is Possible By Editing?
- # vi /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root
- The command to edit the crontab is #crontab -e
What Is Mean By Paging & Server Average Time in Oracle sun server?
If a disk shows consistently high reads/writes along with , the percentage busy (%b) of the disks is greater than 5 percent, and the average service time (svc_t) is greater than 30 milliseconds, then one of the following action needs to be taken
Cannot Open ‘/etc/path_to_inst’” ?
System can not find the /etc/path_to_install file. It might be missing or corrupted and needs to be rebuild.
To rebuild this file boot the system with -ar option :
Press enter to select default values for the questions asked during booting and select yes to rebuild /etc/path_to_install
The /etc/path_to_inst on your system does not exist or is empty. Do you want to rebuild this file [n]? y
system will continue booting after rebuilding the file.
How Will You Comment Error Line In /etc/system File ?
# Vi /etc/system
(To comment the error line in /etc/system files, we have to use *)
What Is Difference Between Incremental Backup And Differential Backup?
Incremental: Only those files will be included which have been changed since the last backup.
Differential: Only those files will be included which have been changed since the last Full backup.
How Many Ufsdump Level?
0 = Full Backup
1-9 = Incremental backup of file, That have changed since the last lower level backup.
What Is Different Between Crontab And At Command?
Crontab: job can be scheduled
At: Job can be a run once only
Difference Between Ufs And Tar Command?
- Used for complete file system backup.
- It copies every thing from regular files in a file system to special character and block device files.
- It can work on mounted or unmounted file systems.
- Used for single or multiple files backup.
- Can’t backup special character & block device files.
- Works only on mounted file system.
Syntex To Execute A Ufsdump ?
# ufsdump 0uf /dev/rmt/1
To Check The Status Of The Media Inserted On The Tape Drive from Oracle Operating System?
# mt /dev/rmt/0 status
How Will You Take Ufsdump And Ufsrestore In A Sing Command Line?
# ufsdump 0f – /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s6 | (cd /mnt/haz ufsrestore xf -)
What Is The Physical Device To Check The 2 Nodes Connect In Cluster by oracle system administrator?
Physical fiber cable which is connect to the 2 nodes is called a HTEARTBEAT
Where Will Be The Configuration For Metadevice?
Explain Raid0, Raid1, Raid3 in Oracle Solaris Operating System interview questions?
RAID 0 Concatenation/Striping
RAID 1 Mirroring
RAID 5-Striped array with rotating parity.
- Concatenation: Concatenation is joining of two or more disk slices to add up the disk space. Concatenation is serial in nature i.e. sequential data operations are performed serially on first disk then second disk and so on. Due to serial nature new slices can be added up without having to take the backup of entire concatenated volume, adding slice and restoring backup.
- Striping: Spreading of data over multiple disk drives mainly to enhance the performance by distributing data in alternating chunks – 16 k interleave across the stripes. Sequential data operations are performed in parallel on all the stripes by reading/writing 16k data blocks alternatively form the disk stripes.
- Mirroring: Mirroring provides data redundancy by simultaneously writing data on to two sub mirrors of a mirrored device. A submirror can be a stripe or concatenated volume and a mirror can have three mirrors. Main concern here is that a mirror needs as much as the volume to be mirrored.
- RAID 5: RAID 5 provides data redundancy and advantage of striping and uses less space than mirroring. A RAID 5 is made up of at least three disks, which are striped with parity information written alternately on all the disks. In case of a single disk failure the data can be rebuild using the parity information from the remaining disks.
What Are The Daemons In Nis Server?
What Are Processing Daemon In Nis?
How To Boot The Oracle Sun server from Solaris System In 64 0r 32 Bit Kernel?
For 64 bit:
# eeprom boot-file=”/kernel/sparc9/unix
OK printenv boot-file
OK settenv boot-file kernel/sparc9/unix
For 32 bit:
# eeprom boot-file=”/kernel/unix
OK printenv boot-file
OK settenv boot-file kernel/unix
Which Command To Lock The User Account?
# lk username
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When companies need to save money, they often buy used servers to minimize IT expenditures, but whether they purchase servers that perform well is another matter. If a company is considering purchasing used servers, but assistance in choosing pre-owned hardware that offers top-notch performance and reliability is required, the answers below will help.
What is the difference between used hardware and refurbished hardware?
Refurbished hardware is pre-owned hardware that has been reconditioned to look and perform like new. Used hardware is pre-owned hardware that has not undergone reconditioning. Reconditioning improves the performance and reliability of the hardware by replacing problematic parts and cleaning the interior. When pre-owned hardware is employed to support mission-critical IT objectives, purchasing refurbished equipment is the best option.
Is buying hardware at auctions a safe decision?
Unless the buyer has expertise in evaluating hardware, buying hardware at auctions is typically a risky choice. Sellers of refurbished hardware often buy IT equipment from auctions and improve the equipment before they resell it. Consequently, the safest option is to purchase equipment from a professional refurbisher of IT hardware.
What type of warranty is available for pre-owned hardware?
Sellers of used servers offer warranties of various lengths. The most extended warranties generally come with refurbished models and typically last between one month and a year. However, used servers that come with a lifetime warranty are also available. The more critical the hardware is for the business, the more necessary it is to purchase it from a seller offering a lifetime warranty.
What type of technical support is available for pre-owned hardware?
Most sellers of refurbished models provide free technical support before the sale to help the buyer choose the right hardware. Some sellers also offer free technical support after the sale to help the buyer integrate the hardware into the network. However, the customer typically pays for long-term technical support. If the company needs ongoing technical support for specific servers, purchasing the hardware from a seller that allows customers to pre-purchase technical support is a smart idea.
When is used hardware too old to be worth purchasing?
As long as the unit operates effectively and meets the buyer’s needs, it is not too old to purchase. With that said, servers that are old enough to lack contemporaneous IT capabilities such as virtualization are often not useful to modern businesses. The first step in buying any model – whether new or old – establishes what qualifications are needed now and in the future. As long as the hardware offers those capabilities, it is worth purchasing.
Buying used servers helps companies reduce IT expenditures, but unless companies buy hardware that offers excellent performance and reliability, the cost savings from purchasing previously owned hardware are negligible. Investing in used servers that have been refurbished is a perfect way to save money without purchasing low-quality hardware. For more information about buying pre-owned hardware, contact a seller of new and used hardware today.
Tower servers are commonly used for networking in businesses. Without a good server, your network will not be as effective and cause problems with daily processes. A server itself is a computer designed to handle specific purposes. The software used on these hardware components is slightly different from your primary desktop computer or laptop and is often referred to as server software. When selecting a server for vital business needs, the decision will significantly be based on its purpose. Most likely, you will either be using a tower or rack server. There is a difference between these two servers. Choosing the wrong one can be disappointing and prevent goals from being accomplished.
A tower server is probably the most basic type you can purchase. They are also the least expensive type of server. Tower designed servers resemble a primary PC and can meet the demands of almost any business network. These hardware components do not have extra features, such as advanced graphics. This is because they are designed to perform a specific task. Typically these work best when your company may need to upgrade shortly. A rack server resembles a flat box and is averagely only one and a half inches in height. The major downside of this server types is limited expandability. These servers work better when a company has defined purposes for each server, limited space, and can afford the number of mounted servers needed.
High Quality, Upgradeable Servers at a Reasonable Price
If tower servers are the best choice for your business, refurbished tower servers can cut down costs while still providing the desired performance and quality. Do not let the word “used” scare you. These servers are just as capable of performing networking and other business data functions as a brand new hardware component. When a server is refurbished, it is restored to its original factory condition. They test it to ensure all parts are functioning as they should be, and it cannot be called refurbished until specific requirements have been met. These servers come with a limited warranty and support. If server problems such as outdated hardware or hardware problems are a concern, they can be leased for additional support and easy replacement. The main benefit of refurbished tower servers is decreased costs for the same quality equipment. This benefit allows your business to take advantage of the newest technology without eating away at the company budget.
Still not convinced that this option is right for your company? If so, ponder this question. Why would you spend more for the same thing? A refurbished server is no different than the one you purchase a brand new from a providing company. They are slightly used but well maintained. Most providers do no sell just any used hardware component. They make sure the product has not been overused or damaged through the various tests run on each server. Refurbished components can prove to be a perfect opportunity for companies on a strict budget and do not make you give up the quality needed to meet your company’s growing demands.
Midst the various threats on the internet today, it’s always a good idea for business organizations, publishers and webmasters to secure the servers they use for their networks. Never be complacent because people with bad intentions on the internet are lurking around and they can strike any website even your own at a time you least expect it.
There are many ways you can protect your important files and data from possible threats. Of primary importance are your vigilance and strong desire to learn about what’s happening in the internet world moving forward. In short, be in the know as often as possible about the latest risks and what you can do to prevent attacks on your servers. Keep yourself updated by reading magazines, subscribing to relevant newsletters, or reading the internet news.
Ensuring that your server’s built-in firewall is properly functioning is another way to combat internet threats. Make sure as well that you have a network firewall attached to your server for best security. Experts advise that if everything is working well with your server, you must close all ports, not in use. These can include ports for file-sharing, web conferencing and printing.
Once your firewall is running well, the next important step to take is to harden the system. By hardening, this means removing software your server box does not need to accomplish its tasks. Unnecessary software applications such as games should be taken out if they’re not used to achieve the server’s primary objectives. Applications that do not support the server’s major role should be moved to a safer place.
After you’ve completed the hardening process, it’s time to do some checks for possible weak spots. For the auditing process, there are software tools you can use for various types of platforms. They can analyze open ports and other possible weaknesses in your server.
Moving forward, maintenance is essential. It’s not enough that you’ve made the system secure and performing well because problems can always happen. The server needs to be regularly kept under control and devoid of viruses, worms and other forms of internet threats. Again, you may need to use some software for this purpose to keep track of server activity and alert you of suspicious activities, including intrusion attempts. You have to understand that the updates being installed on the server can also contribute to problems with other software applications already running in the system.
It’s important to note and keep passwords in a safe place or better yet, change them now, and then avoid possible intrusions. Don’t use very common words but using a mix of alphabets and numbers would be best. Adding symbols if you like will also be helpful.
Finally, don’t forget that protecting your server’s physical infrastructure is as vital as protecting its internal features. In short, you need to make sure that your system is kept in a safe place whether it’s in your office or another place. Experts advise that if possible, the walls of the server room should extend past the ceiling to avoid break-ins.
Business Information Technology (IT) systems require specific care to remain reliable throughout its use. The volume of data storage demands on hardware continues to grow at a rapid speed. IT hardware Maintenance is imperative for securing all sensitive business data and hardware performance.
Dust, electrical fields, and extreme temperatures are dangerous to an IT hardware device, as they interfere with the performance of any hardware utilized for business processes. Heat, extreme cold, and humidity cause components to overheat or acquire moisture. Electrical fields from items such as magnets should be kept away from all devices. Damaged cables prevent hardware from communicating with other devices. Dust gets into the storage mechanism and other components, directly affecting the cooling fans’ ability to keep internal parts at the appropriate temperature.
All of the mentioned elements can be devastating to business systems running important daily processes. Basic IT hardware maintenance entails removing dust from all devices, keeping them in a temperature-controlled room, checking connections, and ensuring no items with magnetic fields are near the equipment.
IBM Storage: Equipment Preservation Practice
Caring for IBM storage devices is not difficult if the time is taken to learn appropriate maintenance procedures. Cleaning is required to keep a storage device properly maintained, and basic cleaning of all system parts should always be a priority. Defragmentation applications consolidate data files in one space to improve the speed and reliability of data. Windows operating systems provide this tool; however, others are also available to suit varying needs. Disk scanning may also be performed to fix any problems residing on the storage medium.
Every business needs to have a firewall installed to ensure all data is secure and not penetrable from outside sources. Virus applications prevent malicious programs from gaining access to sensitive business data. These applications are tools any business can use to increase the dependability of their most pertinent storage hardware. Many equipment providers also offer their own maintenance contract, leaving all critical servicing to the experts.
IBM storage comes in many forms, including traditional disk, NAS, SAN, and tape storage. Data may be stored on disk, either magnetically or optically. This is typically in the form of an external or internal hard drive. It is the most traditional method for saving data from various sources throughout a company.
Network Attached Storage, or NAS, allows data access over a network and operates much like a file server. A Storage Area Network or SAN operates as a dedicated access point for information consolidation. SAN setups make it easier for servers to access devices, such as disk arrays and tape libraries. A business may choose tapes for backups or other data storage processes, as tape drives perform all writing and reading functionality to the storing mechanism, and are a less expensive way to store huge amounts of data. Every device requires the same basic IT hardware maintenance.
The manufacturer may make additional recommendations to ensure proper care. If these guidelines are not followed in combination with basic computer maintenance procedures, performance may decrease, or the component will quit functioning altogether.
Environmental benefits of buying refurbished servers.
According to recent research, computer components are thrown away after 2-4 years of use. This behavior has a devastating impact on our environment because each computer component that is discarded takes up additional space in public landfills. Additionally, these devices are full of toxic materials like lead, cadmium, and mercury. When humans are exposed to these materials, like when they are released into the environment due to premature server disposal, side effects include damage to the brain, kidneys, and the central nervous system. Despite these issues, many companies still choose to buy new servers every 2-4 years even though refurbished servers are more than capable of getting the job done.
When a business opts to purchase refurbished HP servers instead of using new ones, they keep another device out of landfills. However, far more enticing for business owners is the fact that refurbished servers cost less than half as much as a new server. Not only is it environmentally responsible for purchasing used servers that have been restored, but it is also a very cost-effective choice.
Refurbished servers present an opportunity for companies to afford technology and features that they would ordinarily be unable to afford. Older machines can be upgraded, or faulty machines can be replaced without completely depleting the company’s funds. Vendors who perform reconditioning in-house will acquire used servers and run a full diagnostic test to ensure that all components work properly. If a component does not work or is close to the end of its lifespan, it will be replaced so that the buyer acquires a more reliable device. Two other money-saving benefits of purchasing refurbished servers from a vendor that reconditions in-house are the supplied service history and a warranty’s inclusion.
Since reconditioning is performed in-house, the vendor will have a record of replaced components and other aspects that were tested. This repair history will make it easier for the company to schedule regular maintenance, which will reduce system breakdowns and save money. Additionally, companies that recondition servers will stand behind the refurbishment’s quality by offering a warranty. This agreement will allow the buyer to reduce long-term maintenance costs by turning variable repair costs into a fixed cost that is easy to plan.
Another environmental benefit of purchasing refurbished HP servers or other server brands is that most vendors offer to take care of disposal. In some cases, the company will offer to buy the customer’s old server to be reconditioned and re-sold. Even if the company does not offer the customer’s old server, it will still take care of the device’s disposal by disposing of the servers in an environmentally safe way that meets all of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) compliance standards.
Businesses that care about their carbon footprint can acquire new technology in an environmentally friendly way by purchasing refurbished servers. The company also benefits from purchasing refurbished HP servers and other server brands because they are inexpensive, reliable, and high-quality.